What is Fat or oil /Lipids?

Lipids are very important biomolecules  of Living Organisim. They are insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent like alcohol,Esters and chloroforms ,etc. chemically,they are esters of fatty acid and glycerol or monohydric  alcohol.

On the basis of molecular structure lipids are three types.

1)simple lipids

2)phospho lipids

3)wax

1)simple lipids:

They are triesters  of glycerol with long chain  of monocarboxylic acid(fatty acid).

simple lipids

#fatty Acids:

Those carboxylic acid which contain higher  number of carboxylic acid are called fatty acids. they are involved in  formation of fat or Oil.  So, they are called fatty acids.fatty acids are of following two types.

a) Saturated fatty Acids

Those fatty acids which contain saturated alkyl group are called saturated fatty acid.

b) unsaturated fatty Acids:

Those fatty acids which contain unsaturated alkyl group are called unsaturated fatty acids.

Fat or Oil:

Those triglycerides which contain higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acid are called Oil. They are liquid at room temperature.
Those triglycerides which contain higher proportion of saturated fatty acid like palmitic acid, steric acid, are called fats. they are solid at room temperature .

Hydrogenation:

When oil is heated with hydrogen gas in presence of Nickel catalyst at about 250°C temperature, fat is formed .these process is called hydrogenation .this is due to conversion of unsaturated alkyl group into saturated alkyl group.

Hydrolysis of fat or oil:

When fat or Oil are hydrolysed with dilute acid,Glycerol and fatty acid are formed.

Saponification:

When fat or oil are heated with alkali(NaOH) solution, sodium salt of fatty acid is formed. Sodium salt of fatty acid are called soap .the process is called saponification.

2)phospho lipids:

Phospholipids are those triglycerides in which one of the alkyl group from fatty acid is replaced by derivatives of phosphoric acid are called phospholipids.

3)wax:

They are the esters of long chain of fatty acids with monohydric aliphetic alcohols. For example Bee wax.

Related

1)State and prove Joule’s laws of heating.
2)What do you meant by Shunt? Describe its use in converting a Galvanometer into Ammeter.
FAQ

Lipids are those organic compound which is insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvent like alcohols and chloroforms..

Those triglycerides which contain higher proportion of saturated fatty acid like palmitic acid, steric acid, are called fats. they are solid at room temperature .

Those triglycerides which contain higher proportion of unsaturated fatty acid are called Oil. They are liquid at room temperature.

When fat or oil are heated with alkali(NaOH) solution, sodium salt of fatty acid is formed. Sodium salt of fatty acid are called soap .the process is called saponification.

Those carboxylic acid which contain higher number of carboxylic acid are called fatty acids.

Leave a Comment